# Chapters 12, 13 - Modern Physics

Chapter 10, 11 - Atomic Structure and Lifetimes

*Nuclear Physics*

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### Stability and abundance

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Nucleon numbers
Structure of the nucleon
Stable isotopes
With superheavies
Island of stability
Instability and decay modes
Decay processes
PET scan
Radioactive decay chains
Masses and binding energies
Binding energy/nucleon
Energy release, fission and fusion
Fusion reactions
### Semiempirical modeling of binding energy

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Types of interactions
Liquid drop model
Proton-proton interaction
Volume under close-packing
Volume and surface
Electric repulsion
N objects taken 2 at a time
Neutron decay
Fission
Fusion
##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Questions 2, 4, 6 (Due date: Monday 3 April 2006)

Question 12-2

### Applications of the model

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Evaluation of constants
Most stable isobar
Parabolic minima
Mirror nuclides
Average distance within spherical volume
Estimation of nuclear radius
PET sources
PET protocol
Gravitational term
Estimates of size and mass
Exchanged gauge boson
Gauge bosons
##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Questions 7, 8; Problems 3, 4 (Due date: Wednesday 5 April 2006)

Problems 12-3 and 12-4

##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Problems 7, 9, 12, 13 (Due date: Friday 7 April 2006)

Problem 12-7
Problem 12-9
Problems 12-12, 12-13

### Barrier penetration and alpha decay

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Barrier penetration
Penetration factor
KE and PE for alpha decay
Approximate by rectangular barrier
Transparency of rectangular barrier
Tries per second
Alpha particle motion within the nucleus
Alpha decay through Coulomb barrier
Low energy approximation
### Leptons and beta decay

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Leptons
Martin Perl - tau lepton
2-body decays
3-body decays
Muon-catalyzed fusion
##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Questions 10, 14, 23; Problem 29 (Due date: Wednesday 12 April 2006)

Problem 12-29(a)
Internal motion
12-29(b)

### Radioactive chains and cascading

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Halflife of dice
Multisided coins
Supported decay
Branched decay
Cascade and blending simulation
Rutherford's measurements
Coat-of-arms
continued
##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Question 9; Problems 15, 17, 37 (Due date: Friday 14 April 2006)

Problems 12-15 and 12-17
Problem 12-37
continued

### Cosmological, geological, and archaeological dating

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Uranium-lead dating
Successive decay equilibrium
Carbon dating
Bristlecone movie
Bristle cone pine calibration
AMS - Shroud of Turin
J. Opt. A **6**, 491 (2004) [3.4 MB]
Potassium-argon dating
##### Assignment in Chapter 12 of Krane's textbook:
Questions 21, 23;
Problem 38 (Due date: Monday 17 April 2006)

Question 12-21
comment
Problem 12-38

### Diagrammatic mnemonic (Curtis Chapt. 10, pp.195-9)

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Exponential decomposition
Exponential decay
Population equation
Example
Iterate
Cascade order
Diagrams
Application
Single cascade
Growing-in ambiguity
### ANDC Analysis (Curtis Chapt. 10, pp. 200-202)

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ANDC analysis
Parametric plot
Grotrian plot
A personal recollection
Indirect cascading
Ne calibration
Unseen decay curve
### Energy calculations

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Cross section
Beam-target kinematics
Endoergic reactions
Exoergic reactions
### Driven excitation

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Formulation
Parts integration
Iteration formulation
Successive application

Impulsive, stepwise & rectangularly pulsed
excitation
Gaussian excitation
Phase-shift analysis
Modulated excitation
Phase shifts without/with cascades
### The exponential decay law

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History of the exponential law
Limitations of exponential law
Experimental verification
Is it decay or only disintegration?
Jakobovits et al
Merzbacher
Quantum beats
Mercouris and Nicolaides
Webster
Aphorisms
Literary wisdom
##### Assignment in Chapter 13 of Krane's textbook:
Problems 5, 10 (Due date: Friday 21 April 2006

Problem 13-5
Problem 13-10

### Implications of uncontrolled growth

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The energy crisis
Energy supply estimates
Hubbert's candle
The end is in sight
Link to logistic curve
Logistic equation
Population data
Clock
Interating the logistic equation
Chaotic behavior
Mandelbrot set
Self-symmetry

Chap.1
Chap.2
Chap.3
Bridge A
Chap.4
Bridge B
Chap.5/7

Chapter 6/8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

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